Ethical Principles

 

Ethical Responsibilities

 

 At Revista Digital de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria (RIDU), the integrity of our academic contents and publication process is fundamental. In this sense, RIDU promotes good practices in research based on the guidelines and recommendations of the code established by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, https://publicationethics.org/guidance).

Therefore, this document describes the standards of ethical behavior expected in the act of publication by the author of the article.

1) Authors' Responsibilities

 

  • Responsibilities

Authors take responsibility for the content of the manuscript to ensure that questions regarding the accuracy or completeness of any part of the paper are properly addressed and resolved.

  • Authorship of the Article

Authorship of submitted articles is attributed to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, processing, or interpretation of the research reported in the article. In addition, all those who have made substantial contributions should be listed as coauthors. Minor contributions to research or to an article for publication should be duly acknowledged, either in the form of footnotes or in an introductory statement. Publication credits (Standard 8.12) are outlined in the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics (APA, 2010 and 2017 amendments).

In cases of coauthorship, the submitting author must explicitly state, by mutual agreement, the names of all authors and the order in which they will appear in the manuscript. Likewise, all authors must have approved the definitive version of the document and given their consent for the submission and publication of the article in RIDU, after evaluation (see letter of authorization for publication and distribution).

RIDU subscribes to the established and emerging guidelines of the organizations linked to the publication, which favor transparency in authorship (e.g., ORCID, COPE, DORA).

For more information, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) provides resources on authorship and authorship disputes. In this regard, RIDU promotes good research practices based on ethical publication standards among all contributors. Therefore, authors, the Editor, and members of the Editorial and Scientific Committees should be alert to possible ethical misconduct.

  • Originality And Crediting of Sources

The author must conduct original research work and give credit to the authors from whose sources he or she extracted information, adequately presenting the citations and references in their work (see Originality Statement).

Likewise, the article should not include original material copied from other authors without their consent. In case the article contains works from other authors, their consent for its electronic reproduction must be clearly indicated.

Researchers must not present as their own parts of someone else's work or data (Standard 8.11, plagiarism, American Psychological Association Code of Ethics, APA, 2010 and 2017 amendments) as it constitutes Plagiarism. Based on the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) Code of Ethics for Scientific Research, plagiarism is presenting ideas of others as one's own, regardless of intent to deceive. It is an indecent and unacceptable practice in scientific research and a violation of academic integrity.

Plagiarism includes:

  • Quoting verbatim ideas from another person without proper acknowledgment of the source.
  • Paraphrasing ideas from another person by changing some of the words or their order without proper acknowledgment of the source.
  • Cutting and pasting information from various online sources and combining it to make it look like an original creation.
  • Submitting someone else's work as if it were one’s own, for example, not acknowledging the contribution of one or more authors in a joint project, or even, in complicity with a person who has made substantial contributions, not including them as an author because they are prevented from appearing as such (hidden contribution).

Plagiarism can occur with any type of sources and media:

  • Text, illustrations, musical quotations, mathematical formulas, computer code, among others.
  • Material downloaded from websites or extracted from manuscripts or other media.
  • Published and unpublished material, including lectures and works by other authors.
  • Information obtained privately, such as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties.

The Editor, members of the national and international scientific committee, and the author remain alert to possible bad practices and strictly follow ethical standards in the publication process. The detection of plagiarism (partial or total) in the reviewed article leads to automatic rejection of the manuscript and, depending on the severity, the actions detailed in section 7 will be taken. If plagiarism is discovered after publication, we will follow our guidelines described in the Retractions, Corrections and Expressions of Concern section of these guidelines.

  • Duplicate or Redundant Publication (Self-Plagiarism)

Submitting the same manuscript (or one describing the same research) to more than one primary publication journal at the same time constitutes unethical behavior and is unacceptable (see Standard 8.13, duplicate publication of data, American Psychological Association Code of Ethics, APA, 2010 and 2017 amendments). Redundant publication or self-plagiarism occurs when a manuscript—or substantial parts of it—is published in more than one journal without adequate cross-referencing or justification for the overlap. It is considered redundant publication even if one of the versions of the manuscript is in a different language.

RIDU does not accept duplicate or redundant publications, unless it is considered to editorially strengthen the academic discourse, reflects the same data and interpretation of the primary document, has the approval of the original publication, and includes the citation of the original source.

It is not considered redundant publication if the description of the study has been published, prior to or subsequent to the original article, in the form of an abstract, as part of a published academic conference or thesis, or as an electronic preprint.

We expect readers, reviewers, and editors to report any suspected duplicate or redundant publication by contacting the Editor or sending an email to [email protected].

  • Notification of Critical Errors

Authors who discover a major error or inaccuracy in their published article must inform the Editor and provide the information necessary to correct the paper if the Editor deems it appropriate. In Standard 8.10b of the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics (APA, 2010 and 2017 amendments), it is stated that researchers are required to take the necessary steps to correct significant errors they have discovered in their published data.

If a third-party reports errors in a published manuscript to the Editor, the author is required to cooperate with the Editor by providing evidence to the Editor, if requested.

  • Care of Human Subjects in Research and Informed Consent

For studies involving human subjects, the author must ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with the Code of Ethics and Deontology of the Peruvian Psychological Association and the Code of Ethics of the American Psychological Association.

Research involving human subjects must be approved by recognized ethics committees and must comply with international ethical and legal standards for research. The authors must respect the right to privacy of the participants and obtain their informed consent for the research (see informed consent forms). In compliance with these requirements, the manuscript should detail the procedures performed in the study and explain if any of these procedures imply any risk for the participants and the poststudy treatment, if necessary. In addition, the authors should state in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained.

Informed consent is the manifestation of free and conscious will validly stated by a capable person—or by their authorized representative, preceded by adequate information. Informed consent should be obtained whether participation in the study is in person, electronically, or by other forms of communication. It can be expressed in written or oral form, and language understandable to the target population should be used. In the case of persons legally unable to give consent, researchers must seek agreement with the participant and obtain permission from a proxy.

Informed consent should contain: (a) the purpose of the research, expected duration, and procedures (including the use of tape or video recorders for data collection); (b) their right to refuse to participate and to withdraw from the research once participation has begun; (c) foreseeable consequences of withdrawing from the study; (d) reasonably foreseeable factors that can be expected to influence their willingness to participate, such as potential risks, discomforts, or adverse effects; (e) any prospective research benefits; (f) confidentiality limits; (g) incentives for participation; and (h) whom to contact for questions about the research and the rights of research participants.

In experimental studies, in addition, participants must be informed about (a) the experimental treatment; (b) the services available for control groups (if any); (c) the procedure for assigning participants to the experimental and control groups; (d) treatment alternatives available to persons who do not wish to participate in the research or wish to withdraw once a study has begun; and (e) compensation.

If informed consent has been waived for a study that does not involve harm and protects the confidentiality of the participants (e.g., a study on regular educational practices, teaching methods or classroom environment, naturalistic observations, or archival research, among others), this decision should be included in the manuscript and duly substantiated.

The author must keep the informed consents or the evidence that proves that such procedure was carried out in case the Editor requests it.

  • Image Integrity

When research data are collected or presented as images, it is not acceptable to enhance, hide, move, delete, or introduce specific characteristics into these images. Modification of these images may misrepresent the results obtained or their significance. Adjustments to brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable as long as they do not hide or remove information present in the original image. It is acceptable to modify images to improve clarity, but manipulation for other purposes may be viewed as unethical.

Likewise, the use of images of the participants requires their informed consent and the approval of an ethics committee. This information should be included in the manuscript.

Authors should provide the original images as supplementary material with the article.

  • Guidelines for Articles

In original articles, the authors must present an accurate description of the study carried out, as well as an objective discussion of its importance. Manuscripts should also accurately represent the underlying data and include sufficient detail and references to allow other researchers to reproduce the work. Fraudulent or deliberately inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable (see Standards 5.01a and 8.10a of the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics, APA, 2010 and 2017 amendments, and the Code of Ethics in Scientific Research of UPC, https://investigacion.upc.edu.pe/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/C%C3%B3digo-de-%C3%A9tica-en-la-investigacion-cientifica-de-la-UPC.pdf). Review articles, theoretical and reflective articles, and other professional contributions should also be precise and objective.

Declaration of Conflict of Interest

Conflicts of interest are situations in which interests outside the scientific or editorial activity (of the author or any other person involved in the publication process of an article) may be perceived to exert improper influence on the submission, review, and publication of a manuscript. These conflicts of interest may be financial, non-financial, professional, contractual, or personal in nature.

Authors submitting a manuscript to RIDU must declare any potential conflicts of interest that may interfere with the objectivity or integrity of a publication (Funding and Conflict of Interest Statement). All sources of financial support for the conduct of the research or preparation of the article should be disclosed, as should the role of the sponsor, if applicable, in the design of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source did not have such involvement, this should also be indicated in the manuscript.

Examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, fees, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, grants, or other funding.

We hope that anyone who suspects an undisclosed conflict of interest with respect to an article published in RIDU will inform the Editor by sending an e-mail to [email protected].

  • Reproducibility

Formal permission will not be required to reproduce parts (tables or illustrations) of published articles, provided that the source is properly cited, and the reproduction is not intended for commercial purposes.

 

2) Responsibilities of The Editorial Team

  • Data Access and Preservation

Authors may be asked to provide data, codes, and other materials supporting their research for editorial review. Authors should retain (for a reasonable time after publication) accurate records of supporting evidence and provide access to this evidence to enable other researchers to understand, verify, and replicate the study's conclusions through a second analysis, according to Standard 8.14, Sharing Research Data for Verification, of the American Psychological Association Code of Ethics (APA, 2010 and 2017 amendments).

  • Self-Archiving Policies

The author may share, disseminate, and disclose their research published in RIDU (publisher's version) by the various media (e.g., academic social networks, repositories, portals, among others) available on the web.

  • Metadata Retrieval - OAI-PMH Preservation

The OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative-Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) protocol for metadata retrieval of all articles published in RIDU is used: https://revistas.upc.edu.pe/index.php/docencia/oai

  • Digital Archiving and Preservation

RIDU uses OJS (Open Journal Systems), which is compatible with the LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) system to guarantee the journal a permanent and secure archive. LOCKSS is an open-source program developed by the Stanford University Library that allows publishers to preserve article metadata.

  • Ethics Oversight

RIDU has a support group for the control and monitoring of ethical issues involved in the entire editorial process, from the submission of articles to their visibility and dissemination.

  • Intellectual Property Rights

RIDU abides by the institutional guidelines of intellectual property of UPC (https://www.upc.edu.pe/html/politica-y-terminos/0/terminos-condiciones.htm, as well as by the intellectual property rights declared by the National Institute for the Defense of Competition and Intellectual Property (INDECOPI), https://www.indecopi.gob.pe/documents/20182/143803/DecretoLegislativo822.pdf

  • Plagiarism Detection Policy

The journal applies national and international ethical standards in the review and publication process. Therefore, it follows international standards of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and uses Turnitin software to ensure transparency in the information.

In case of plagiarism detection, the procedures followed are based on the following information provided by COPE, the American Psychological Association (APA) and other institutions:

Once the article is submitted to start the respective refereeing process, the authors will send to RIDU the relevant documents for the assignment of the article’s copyright. In the case of acceptance for publication, such assignment of rights will be formalized by RIDU.

The articles until 2020 were published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA) license. As of 2021, articles are published under the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en).

  • Authors' Payment Policy

RIDU DOES NOT charge any fees to authors for the processing of their articles (Article processing charge; APC). Likewise, all accepted articles are translated into English/Spanish at no cost to the authors.

  • Open Access Policy

The contents of RIDU are Open Access and are available in full text on the portal. This journal provides free access to all research published under the principle of making research freely available to the entire community, which fosters a greater exchange of global knowledge.

In this sense, access to the contents of the journal does not require membership fees or subscriptions.

  • Owner of the Journal

RIDU is edited by the Office of Research and Institutional Effectiveness of the Directorate of Quality Assurance of UPC.

  • Funding

RIDU is 100% financed by the Office of Research and Institutional Effectiveness of the Directorate of Quality Assurance of UPC.

  • Publicity

RIDU advertises its various achievements of national and international impact and events held by the magazine, as well as events sponsored by UPC.

 

3) Sanction Policies for Inappropriate Conduct

 

RIDU applies sanctions according to the inadequate conducts incurred by the authors, which include falsification of data, manipulation of data in favor of results, indiscriminate use of self-citations, unjustified authorship, and others. In case of finding any of these bad practices in any manuscript, the Editorial Committee will evaluate the case and will sanction according to the type of fault.

  • Minor Misconduct

Minor faults are inappropriate conduct that does not merit a thorough investigation and where all parties involved have the right to reply, e.g., the unjustified inclusion of authors, excessive self-citations, among others considered by the committee.

  • Serious Misconduct

This type of misconduct requires a thorough investigation and the superiors and employers of the person objectively accused to be notified. In case of incriminating evidence, the journal may involve external experts (limited number of people to be considered by the Editorial Committee) for the final opinion and sanction (alteration of results, plagiarism, self-plagiarism, double submission of papers, among others considered by the committee). The author has the right to appeal this decision.

  • Consequences

The journal decides on the type of sanction according to the seriousness of the fault:

  • In the case of minor misconduct, the journal will send a notification to those involved about the misconduct, so that, in the future, they avoid this type of behavior.
  • In the case of serious misconduct, the journal may send a formal letter to the employer, funding agency, or the superior of those involved, in reference to the case in question. Depending on the severity of the misconduct, the journal may publish an editorial on unethical behavior, including the name of the persons involved (the specific case), or remove or retract the publications of those involved.
  • In some cases, the editorial team may prohibit an author to publish any manuscript in their journal for an undetermined period of time, as recommended by ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors), COPE, and NLM (National Library of Medicine).
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4) Retractions

 

Articles published in RIDU may be retracted over time as a result of sanctions for inappropriate conduct.

Articles retracted in RIDU will follow the recommendations of ICMJE, COPE, and NLM. These articles will have the following characteristics:

  1. an initial note of the reason for the retraction will be included in the published article.
  2. The PDF article will be watermarked on all pages with the text "retracted."
  3. The word [Retracted] will be included at the beginning of the title.

 

5) Correction of Articles, Observations, and Others

 

For the correction and errata of articles published in RIDU, the recommendations of ICMJE, COPE, NLM, and APA will be followed. The correction and errata of articles in case it is a small part of the study (mathematical symbols, data, references, and citations) will be done in electronic format (PDF and HTML).

6) Privacy Statement

The names and e-mail addresses entered in this journal will be used exclusively for the purposes stated by it and will not be available for any other purpose or to any other person.