Revisión de las intervenciones que mejoran la utilidad percibida del aprendizaje de los estudiantes

Palabras clave: rendimiento académico, aprendizaje, motivación; interés, psicología de la educación

Resumen

Actualmente, los docentes se enfrentan al desafío de lograr que los estudiantes perciban como útiles los contenidos que enseñan en clase. Desde la teoría expectativa-valor de la motivación, la utilidad percibida es considerada flexible a las intervenciones externas. Aunque un cuerpo reciente y creciente de investigaciones han evaluado la efectividad de tales intervenciones, no se conocen publicaciones que hayan revisado la cantidad, características, conceptos, correlatos y funcionamiento de las intervenciones investigadas. Para tal fin, en este trabajo se buscó describir las intervenciones que promueven la utilidad percibida por los estudiantes. Se llevó a cabo una revisión bibliográfica no sistemática, construyéndose criterios de análisis ad hoc. Se identificaron doce intervenciones, todas basadas en el modelo teórico de expectativa-valor. El tipo, cantidad y duración de las actividades es diverso y las mismas consisten en pedir a los estudiantes que hagan conexiones de los temas aprendidos en clase con su vida cotidiana. Asimismo, la frecuencia de dichas conexiones es el mecanismo a través del cual las intervenciones poseen efectos sobre el aprendizaje. Esta revisión aporta a la práctica e investigación en educación una diversidad de recursos para producir cambios en la utilidad percibida y mejorar el interés y el rendimiento de los estudiantes.

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Publicado
2019-12-03